20 Most Interesting Facts about Madrid
Madrid is the hacienda and most populous city of Spain and also a Spanish province. The city is situated at the foot of the Guadarrama mountains ter the center of the Spanish meseta (plateau), at a height of Two,130 feet (650 meters) above sea level. The climate is continental, with cold winters and hot summers. Annual rainfall infrequently exceeds 16 inches (400 mm). The city has a population of Trio.234 million (2012).
1. Madrid is the 2nd most industrialized city of Spain after Barcelona. Its leading industries are engineering, construction, food, leather and clothing, paper and graphic geneesheer, ceramics, glass, and cementlaag, woodworking, beverages, basic metallurgy, textiles, tobacco, and chemicals.
Two. Even more significant to Madrid’s economy, however, are commerce, transportation, finance, government administration, tourism, and the entertainment industry. The city’s financial preeminence has bot decisive ter attracting large-scale modern industry to Madrid.
Trio. Spil Madrid’s economic importance has grown, so has its population. It experienced a tremendous increase, from 1,138,000 te 1930 to Two,938,723 ter 2001. Most of this increase wasgoed due to migration from the agricultural regions of Castile, Andalusia, and Extremadura.
Four. The municipal subway system and numerous buses provide rapid transportation around the city. A radial system of railroads and highways gives Madrid effortless access to the surplus of Spain. Its three railroad stations are ChamartГn, Atocha, and Boreal. The Madrid-Barajas International Airport is the most significant te Spain ter number of planes, passengers, and merchandise treated.
Five. The city wasgoed founded te the 9th century by the Muslim emir And ar-Rahman II on the petite Manzanares Sea. The Muslim castle (Almudena) built there occupies the webpagina of the present Royal Palace. Te the next century the name of the city shows up spil Magerit (Majrit) ter the chronicle of Sampiro, bishop of Astorga. The walls of Magerit were ruined by Ramiro II of LeГіn te 932, but the final Christian conquest, under Alfonso VI of LeГіn and Castile, dates from 1083.
6. The peripatetic Spanish monarchy often held court ter Madrid from the early 14th century. But it did not become Spain’s voortdurend hacienda until 1561, when it wasgoed chosen by the country’s Habsburg ruler Philip II, who wasgoed born there. But Madrid had certain evident advantages spil a seat of government: its climate wasgoed healthy, there were extensive woodlands (of which the Casa den Campo and El Pardo forest are vestiges) with plentiful spel and water, it wasgoed situated ter the geographical center of the Iberian Peninsula, and choosing it neutralized the rivalries of other Castilian cities.
7. After 1561, Madrid experienced a frenetic growth. Spain’s Golden Age (Siglo den Oro) of kunst, architecture, literature, and theater wasgoed associated with outstanding figures such spil Lope den Vega, Tirso den Molina, and Quevedo, who were born ter the city, and with others who were attracted to it, such spil VelГЎzquez, CalderГіn, and Cervantes.
8. Madrid switched forearms several times during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701вЂ“1714), but fervently welcomed the fresh Bourbon dynasty te 1710, when Philip V entered the city. The 18th century wasgoed a period of splendor under Philip and especially under Charles IIIвЂ””el mejor corregidor den Madrid” (“the best viejo of Madrid”)вЂ”when the city wasgoed embellished with fresh buildings and monuments and became a center of European culture.
9. Madrid experienced most of the unhappy events of Spain’s disturbed history te the 19th century, beginning with the armed resistance of the inhabitants to the Napoleonic occupation of 1808вЂ“1813 and continuing through the popular risings of 1834, 1840, 1841, 1854, 1865, and 1868. Te the 20th century Madrid wasgoed te the vuurlijn line of the Civil War of 1936вЂ“1939. Gen. Francisco Vrachtvrij’s military occupation of the city on March 28, 1939, marked the end of the civil war.
Ten. Because the Manzanares Sea impedes expansion to the westelijk, Madrid has spread eastward from the nucleus inbetween the Plaza Veterano and the Royal Palace (Palacio Existente or Palacio den Oriente). Up to the mid-19th century, growth wasgoed restrained by the walls constructed by Philip IV ter 1625, but te 1860 the walls were demolished and a fresh stage of growth began. The marquis den Salamanca founded the Salamanca residential district east of the Paseo den Recoletos (Paseo den Pelado Sotelo), and ter 1910 the Gran VГa wasgoed cut through the old city.
11. The demographic explosion of the 20th century caused Madrid to spread across the Manzanares southwest to Carabanchel, north to ChamartГn and beyond, and eastward along the highways to Barcelona and Valencia. Te 1964 the Metropolitan Area of Madrid wasgoed created, composed of 23 municipalities and extending overheen 205 square miles (531 sq km).
12. The Moorish quarter and medieval Madrid are to be seen te the narrow streets inbetween the Plaza Veterano and the Calle den BailГ©n. Here are the 12th century San NicolГЎs, the oldest church te Madrid, San Pedro el Positivo, founded by Alfonso XI, and the Torre den los Lujanes, dating from the 16th century. The towers of San NicolГЎs and San Pedro are te the mudГ©jar style, mixing Gothic and Islamic elements.
13. Habsburg Madrid of the 16thвЂ“17th century is characterized by a modified Italian Wedergeboorte architecture. An example is the Plaza Maduro, planned at the time spil the center of the city. It wasgoed designed by Juan GГіmez den Mora and inaugurated by Philip III te 1619. An equestrian statue of the monarch by Pietro Tacca and Giovanni da Bologna stands te the center of the square, which te the past witnessed bullfights, tournaments, and executions.
14. The ecclesiastical jewel of Wedergeboorte Madrid is the Capilla del Mitrado (Bishop’s Chapel) ter the Plaza del MarquГ©s den Comillas. Finished ter 1535 and marking the transition from the Gothic, it contains a fine reredos by Juan den Giralte (1548). Secular buildings of Habsburg Madrid include the baroque Town Recibidor on the Plaza den lade Villa, the plateresque Casa den Cisneros next to the Town Recibidor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs te the Plaza den Provincia, the Segovia Bridge overheen the Manzanares, and the house of Lope den Vega.
15. From the late 17th century until about 1735 the Spanish Wedergeboorte style wasgoed superseded by the baroque works of architects such spil JosГ© Benito den Churriguera and Pedro den Ribera, to be seen, for example, te the hospice on the Calle den Fuencarral. The hospice now houses the Municipal Museum and Library.
16. The principal architectural legacy of the house of Bourbon are the neoclassical buildings and monuments of Francesco Sabatini, Ventura RodrГguez, Diego den Villanueva, and of Giovanni Battista Sacchetti, who wasgoed commissioned to build the fresh Royal Palace after the earlier Habsburg palace had burned. Buildings belonging to this period are the Church of San Francisco el Alto (1761вЂ“1784), used for years spil a royal pantheon and partly decorated by Goya, the Ministry of the Interior (GobernaciГіn) on the Puerta del Sol, and a series of buildings on the Calle den AlcalГЎ -the Ministry of Finance, the Royal Academy of Fine Geneesheer of San Fernando, and the Church of Calatravas.
17. The route of the neoclassical resumes along the north-south boulevard of the Paseo del Prado. The Prado Museum, one of the foremost kunst galleries ter the world, contains works by the excellent Spanish artists El Greco, Ribera, VelГЎzquez, Murillo, and Goya, spil well spil examples of the Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, and English schools.
Eighteen. Steps lead from the Prado to the Retiro Park, the most beautiful of Madrid’s parks, whose forest and avenues voorkant about 320 acres (130 hectares). Adjacent to the Retiro stand the Cibeles fountain te the Plaza den lade Cibeles and, te the Plaza den lade Independencia, the monumental arch of the Puerta den AlcalГЎ, built by Francesco Sabatini and decorated by Roberto Miguel ter 1778 ter honor of Charles III.
Nineteen. The architecture of 19th century Madrid can be seen te the Royal Theater (1850) facing the Royal Palace, the Cortes (parliament) building (1856), and the Palace of the National Library and Museums north of the Plaza den lade Cibeles.
20. The Genérico Postbode Office (1907вЂ“1919) on the Plaza den lade Cibeles is perhaps the most extravagant introduction to the 20th century, which ter its public buildings achieves its most accomplish expression te the University City (one of the largest university campuses ter Europe), and along the boulevard of Lade Castellana.